The aim of the study was to determine the effect of coumaric acid on sciatic nerve ischemia/reperfusion (SNI) injury in rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (no medication or surgical procedure), SNI group, SNI + coumaric acid (CA) group, and SNI + methylprednisolone (MP) group. Ischemia was achieved by abdominal aorta clamping, and all animals were sacrificed 24 h after ischemia. Harvested sciatic nerve segments were investigated histopathologically and for tissue biochemistry. A significant decrease in MDA, an increase in NRF1 levels, and increase in SOD activity were observed in the groups which received coumaric acid and methylprednisolone when compared to the corresponding untreated group (p < 0.05). Ischemic fiber degeneration significantly reduced in the SNI + CA and SNI + MP groups, especially in the SNI + MP group, compared to the SNI group (p < 0.05). Beta amyloid protein expressions were significantly decreased in the SNI + CA group compared to the SNI group (p < 0.05). Our study revealed that coumaric acid treatment after ischemia/reperfusion in rat sciatic nerves reduced oxidative stress and axonal degeneration. Therefore, coumaric acid may play a role in the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries due to ischemia/reperfusion.