In this study, the distribution, morphology and relative abundance of Sulfate Reducing Bacterial (SRB) and Methanogenic Archaeal (MA) populations in the Black Sea sediments were investigated by using in situ hybridization with fluorescently labeled rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Results were discussed with respect to the characteristics of sampling points. MA and SRB showed a great diversity in all sediment samples. Higher abundance of MA (20-30%) and SRB (30-35%) populations were observed within the sediments from deeper parts of the Black Sea than the shallower parts (10-11% MA and 13-14% SRB). Desulfobotulus, Desulfosarcina and Desulfococcus groups were the most commonly detected SRB groups in the Black Sea sediments. Relative percentage of these SRB groups within sediments from deeper parts of the Black Sea was in a range of 17-21% whereas that of was in a range of 4-5% within the sediments from the shallower parts. Order Methanococcales were the dominant methanogenic group in all samples. Relative percentages of order Methanococcales were in a range of 8-12% and 4-5% within sediments from deeper parts and the coastal parts of the Black Sea, respectively.