The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship among leucocytosis, thrombocytosis and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and their prognostic value in patients with NSCLC. Fifty-five patients with histopathological and/or cytopathological diagnosed NSCLC were enrolled into the study. The patients were grouped as patients with leucocytosis (>10.000/mm(3)) and/or thrombocytosis (>400.000/mm(3)) (group 1), and others with none of them as a control group (group 2). Serum VEGF levels were measured by ELISA. Group 1 had three subgroups: patients with leucocytosis (group la), patients with thrombocytosis (group 1b) and patients with both of them (group 1c). Survival of the patients were analysed by Kaplan-Meier method. There was no survival difference between group 1 and 2, although there was a trend in favour of control group. The patients with higher levels of serum VEGF had a shorter survival than others who had lower levels, when the mean VEGF level of control group (206 pg/ml) was defined as cut-off value in group 1. The patients with leucocytosis and thrombocytosis had significantly higher VEGF levels when compared with control group (p = 0.022). No survival difference was observed for groups 1a, 1b and 1c when compared with control group. In conclusion, serum VEGF levels were significantly higher in patients who had leucocytosis and/or thrombocytosis although leucocytosis and/or thrombocytosis could not have been shown as a prognostic factor in patients with NSCLC. The association between serum VEGF and leucocytosis/thrombocytosis could not have been concluded as a cause or result.