Liquefaction severity mapping based on SPT data: a case study in Canakkale city (NW Turkey)


ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.77, no.12, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 77 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-018-7597-x
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: Liquefaction, Canakkale, Liquefaction severity index, Liquefaction potential index, Standard penetration test, SOIL LIQUEFACTION, POTENTIAL INDEX, KOCAELI-EARTHQUAKE, NORTHWEST TURKEY, FOUNDATION SOILS, DAM SITE, SUSCEPTIBILITY, AREA, RESISTANCE, CLASSIFICATION
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Soil liquefaction is one of the major causes of damage to buildings and structures during earthquakes. Very shallow groundwater table in Quaternary alluvial deposits and the seismic properties of a region can cause a significant damage to buildings and infrastructure dependent on liquefaction. Canakkale city is located in the first-degree seismic hazard zone according to the earthquake zone map of Turkey. A large part of the Canakkale settlement area is located on unconsolidated alluvium recently deposited by the Saricay River. In this survey, the liquefaction potential of the Canakkale settlement area was investigated based on the liquefaction severity index and liquefaction potential index for two possible earthquake scenarios with a moment magnitude (M (w)) and peak ground acceleration (a (max)) of 7.5 and 319 gal and 7.0 and 222 gal, respectively. In addition, these two methods were analysed using the peak ground acceleration (a (max) = 141 gal) value measured at the Canakkale station during the 2014 Aegean Sea earthquake. Based on the results of the analyses, liquefaction susceptibility maps of Canakkale city were produced for different a (max) values. The study involved three stages: field work, laboratory testing, and generation of the liquefaction severity maps. Geotechnical boreholes at 151 locations were drilled and Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) performed. Thereafter, natural moisture content, unit weight, grain-size distribution, and Atterberg limits were determined by means of laboratory testing. Finally, Quaternary alluvial deposits in the study area were divided into five classes representing very low-to-very high liquefaction for three a (max) values.