The aim of this study was to determine whether serum androgen levels have an effect on mindfulness and metacognition in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adolescents diagnosed with PCOS were asked to answer a questionnaire that included socio-demographic information and two scales: the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Metacognition Scale Child and Adolescent form (MCQ-C). The patients were divided into two groups, the hyperandrogenism group and the non-hyperandrogenism group, according to serum androgen levels. The scores of MAAS and MCQ-C were compared between the groups. The study sample consisted of 70 adolescents. Of these, 44 had hyperandrogenism according to a blood test. No statistically significant difference was found in MAAS scores between the hyperandrogenism and the non-hyperandrogenism groups (p = 0.79). However, the level of mindfulness was found to be lower in participants with a higher modified Ferriman-Gallwey score (mFGS) (r = 0.26, p = 0.02). Mindfulness levels were also lower for obese patients with PCOS compared to non-obese patients with PCOS (p = 0.02). Cognitive monitoring (MCQ-C-CM), one of the MCQ-C sub-scales, was significantly higher in the non-hyperandrogenism group (p = 0.03), and similarly, a positive correlation was detected between higher androgen levels and the positive meta-worry (MCQ-C-PM) sub-scale of the MCQ-C (for total testosterone; r = 0.348, p = 0.03, and for androstenedione; r = 0.35, p = 0.03). High serum androgen levels in PCOS had no effect on mindfulness, but as the modified Ferriman Gallwey score increased, mindfulness levels decreased. For the sub-scales of MCQ-C,MCQ-C-CM, and MCQ-C-PM, the scores increased as androgen levels increased. In line with the results of the present study, evaluating mindfulness in PCOS patients with increased hair growth and metacognition in PCOS patients with serum hyperandrogenism may contribute well-being in adulthood by reducing the psychological burden caused by the disease.