Geology of Neogene basins of Buldan-SarA +/- caova region and their importance in Western Anatolia neotectonics

Bozcu M.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EARTH SCIENCES, vol.99, no.4, pp.851-861, 2010 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


The Buyuk Menderes and Gediz (AlaAYehir) grabens are two significant segments of the Western Anatolian extensional province. They merge around Buldan-SarA +/- caova in the east. Outcropping Neogene sedimentary units in this area display a rather complex structure. This paper summarizes the importance and meaning of the data obtained during a detailed investigation of the Neogene units and aims to improve our understanding of the neotectonic evolution of Western Anatolia. The Buldan-SarA +/- caova Neogene sequence is composed of three different sedimentary units: (1) the Lower Unit, (2) the Middle Unit, and (3) the Upper Unit. The Lower Unit crops out on the Buldan horst which is located between the Buyuk Menderes and AlaAYehir grabens. The sequence starts as a coarse conglomerate and sandstone (A degrees salar Formation) and continues as lagoonal-lacustrine mudstone, interbedded with coal seams and shales (Bostanyeri Formation) and also with lacustrine limestones. The age of this succession is Lower-Middle Miocene. The development of the basin is structurally controlled by NNW-trending normal faults. The Middle Unit begins with a conglomerate-mudstone sequence (KA +/- zA +/- lburun Formation), followed by a sandstone-mudstone-marl sequence (Saraykoy Formation). A lacustrine limestone-marl unit occurs at the top (Aktepe Formation). Some thin gypsum lenses and layers are observed in the Saraykoy Formation. The unit contains some brackish-water fossils. The rocks of the Middle Unit crop out mostly at the low altitudes of the Buldan horst, i.e. the southeast piedmont, around the junction of the Buyuk Menderes and the Gediz grabens. The Middle Unit was deposited in fluvial and lacustrine environments during the Late Miocene-Pliocene period. These rocks were formed in response to the uplift of the Buldan horst. The Upper Unit, which is composed of conglomerates, was deposited within the Buyuk Menderes Graben-Gediz Graben depressions as alluvial fill.