Influence of Artemisia annua (Asteraceae) leaf extract on immunity in Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

Öztürk R., KAYA S.

Biologia, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11756-024-01677-7
  • Journal Name: Biologia
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Animal Behavior Abstracts, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Artemisia annua, Catalase, Encapsulation- melanization, Galleria mellonella, Lipid peroxidase, Phenoloxidase, Superoxide dismutase, Total hemocyte count
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Sweet sagewort (Artemisia annua) is a species that has been used for many years to treat high fever due to its artemycin content. Artemycin is the active ingredient in antimalarial drugs. Additionally, the plant’s leaves are consumed as tea or aqueous extract. Invertebrate model organism Galleria mellonella is preferred in immune studies due to its ease of administration, natural immunity shared with mammals, including humans, and rapid determination of results. In this research, we systematically assessed the impact of A. annua extract on the immune system of animals by employing the G. mellonella model organism. We meticulously examined key facets of innate immune responses, including total hemocyte count, encapsulation-melanization, and phenoloxidase activity. Furthermore, we delved into the effects on antioxidant enzyme activity, specifically superoxide dismutase, catalase, and lipid peroxidase. The hemocyte count showed a statistically significant decrease across all given doses of the A. annua extract when compared to the control groups. The A. annua extract had no effect on the catalase activity, malondialdehyde amount, phenoloxidase activity, or melanization response of G. mellonella larvae, according to the findings of our study. Nonetheless, it enhanced SOD activity. In comparison to the control groups, it decreased the strong encapsulation response, which is a cell-mediated immune response, at all doses. While the A. annua extract had little effect on enzymatic processes in animals, it reduced cell-mediated immune responses by altering cell behaviours and count with cytotoxic and genotoxic effects.