Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with oxidative stress that promotes production of reactive oxygen species and cytokine release. We aimed to investigate the possible protective and antioxidant effects of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) in a rat model of CRF. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned as either CRF group with 5/6 reduction in the renal mass or sham-operated control group. CRF group received either saline or AGE (250 mg/kg/day/1 mL) orally for 3 weeks. At the end of the 3 weeks, rats were decapitated and trunk blood was collected. Creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and TNF-alpha alpha and IL-1 beta beta levels were measured in the serum samples, while malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were determined in the kidney, lung, and heart samples. CRF caused significant decreases in tissue GSH, which were accompanied with significant increases in MDA levels and MPO activities, while the circulating levels of the LDH activity, creatinine, BUN, TNF-alpha alpha, and IL-1 beta beta were elevated. AGE treatment alleviated CRF-induced oxidative changes in the injured tissues, while CRF-induced elevations in the blood levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and LDH were reduced. In conclusion, CRF-induced oxidative tissue injury occurs via the activation of pro-inflammatory mediators and by neutrophil infiltration into tissues and that the protective effects of garlic on CRF-induced injury can be attributed to its ability to inhibit neutrophil infiltration and pro-inflammatory mediators. These findings suggest that garlic, as a supplementary to diet, may have a potential therapeutic use in delimitating the systemic oxidant effects of CRF on remote organs.