Modification of grape pulp with citric acid for the production of natural ion exchanger resin and removal of Pb (II) and Cd (II) from aqueous solutions: kinetic, thermodynamics, and mechanism

Arslanoglu E., Eren M. S. A., Arslanoglu H., Ciftci H.

BIOMASS CONVERSION AND BIOREFINERY, vol.13, no.3, pp.2349-2362, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s13399-021-01521-x
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.2349-2362
  • Keywords: Grape pulp waste, Ion exchange resin, Lead (II) and cadmium (II) removal, Adsorption-ion exchange, Desorption, Isotherm-kinetic-thermodynamic
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: No


In this study, grape pulp (MGP) modified with NaOH and citric acid was used in the production of natural ion exchangers. The effects of parameters such as initial pH, MGP dosage, temperature, initial metal ion concentration, and contact time on the removal of Pb (II) and Cd (II) ions from aqueous solutions using modified materials were investigated by batch experiments. It was found that the experimental kinetic data fit the second-order model, and the activation energy for Pb (II) and Cd (II) adsorption processes were 20.68 and 38.61 kj mol(-1), respectively. Although the initial adsorption rate increases with increasing temperature, the adsorption efficiency slightly decreases. It was calculated that the equilibrium data fit the Langmuir isotherm better, and the maximum adsorption capacities for Pb (II) and Cd (II) adsorption processes were approximately 1.496 and 1.022 mmol g(-1) at 25 degrees C, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis has shown that the adsorption processes of Pb (II) and Cd (II) are exothermic (Delta H degrees(Pb) = -35.68 kj mol(-1), Delta H degrees(Cd) = -21.19 kj mol(-1)) and have a self-developing character.