Biofortified Whey/Deglycosylated Whey and Chickpea Protein Matrices: Functional Enrichment by Black Mulberry Polyphenols

Ozleyen A., Cinar Z. O., KARAV S., Bayraktar A., Arslan A., Kayili H. M., ...More

PLANT FOODS FOR HUMAN NUTRITION, vol.77, no.1, pp.51-61, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 77 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11130-021-00943-2
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.51-61
  • Keywords: Black mulberry, Polyphenols, Protein matrices, Whey, Deglycosylation, Anti-inflammatory, BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN, FLAVONOIDS
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Morus nigra L. (black mulberry-BM) is a promising nutraceutical fruit containing biologically active polyphenols like anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, catechins, and stilbenes, with well-established anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, and anticancer biofunctions. However, these health-promoting properties in raw fruit are greatly masked due to the presence of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates in excess amounts restricting daily intake of the required dose to achieve targeted effects. In the current study, different protein sources (defatted whey and chickpea flours) were optimized through different conditions to capture polyphenols from BM juice while diminishing its glucose content. To optimize polyphenol-protein interactions, various pHs (3.7, 4.2, and 4.7), matrix concentrations (20, 50, and 80 g protein/L), and incubation times (5, 20, and 45 min) were tested. In the present work, optimized BM polyphenol enriched whey matrix inhibited pro-inflammatory mediators and promoted Nrf-2 dependent cytoprotective enzyme expressions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced macrophages at low doses. In addition, whey proteins were also subjected to an enzymatic deglycosylation process by using recently identified EndoBI-1 enzyme for the specific cleavage of N-glycan core in all glycan types including high mannoses, hybrids as well as complex glycans found on defatted whey proteins. After this process, the polyphenol sorption capacity of deglycosylated whey proteins was found to be significantly higher (37%) than the capacity of non-treated normal whey protein under optimized conditions. In conclusion, deglycosylation of protein matrices could be a novel strategy for efficient sorption/concentration of polyphenols from fruits and vegetables, however, more detailed studies are needed to understand this effect.