This case report illustrates the follow-up of a 57-year-old female with a type B aortic dissection (AD) under dabigatran treatment. The patient had been operated on 8 years earlier due to type A AD. The aortic valve was repaired and a 26-mm polyester fiber graft was applied to the ascending aorta and the aortic arch. In computerized tomography scans taken after the procedure, a dissection flap extending from the descending aorta to the iliac arteries was seen, but the patient was asymptomatic and no further surgery was performed. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with atrial fibrillation. A CHA(2)DS(2)VASc score of 3 was recorded and dabigatran treatment was initiated. The aortic aneurysm and dissection were followed up via computed tomography and echocardiography at regular intervals, and at 6 months no progression was seen. No thromboembolic or hemorrhagic events were observed. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of dabigatran treatment for a patient with a type B AD. Based on this case, the use of dabigatran would appear to be safe in a patient with an uncomplicated type B AD, but the results of this case need to be confirmed with extended follow-up and additional patients.