The present study evaluates the effects of agmatine oil histopathological damage following traumatic injury using a clinically relevant model of diffuse brain injury. A total of 27 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-225 g were anaesthetised and subjected to head trauma using Marmarou's impact-acceleration model. The rats were then separated into two main groups: one was treated with agmatine and the other with saline for LIP to 4 days immediately after head trauma. Rats from both groups were killed 1, 3 or 8 days post-injury. The brains were examined histopathologically and scored according to the axonal, neuronal and Vascular changes associated with diffuse brain injury. There were no significant differences between the groups at I clay or 3 days after trauma, but evaluation after 8 days revealed,I significant improvement in the group treated with agmatine. Our data indicate that agmatine has a beneficial effect in diffuse brain injury and Should be trialled for therapeutic use in the management of this condition. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.