An investigation of the causal relationship between sunspot groups and coronal mass ejections by determining source active regions

Raheem A., ÇAVUŞ H., Coban G. C., KINACI A. C., Wang H., Wang J. T. L.

MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, vol.506, no.2, pp.1916-1926, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 506 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1093/mnras/stab1816
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, zbMATH, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1916-1926
  • Keywords: Sun: activity, Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs), sunspots
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Although the source active regions of some coronal mass ejections (CMEs) were identified in CME catalogues, vast majority of CMEs do not have an identified source active region. We propose a method that uses a filtration process and machine learning to identify the sunspot groups associated with a large fraction of CMEs and compare the physical parameters of these identified sunspot groups with properties of their corresponding CMEs to find mechanisms behind the initiation of CMEs. These CMEs were taken from the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshops (CDAW) data base hosted at NASA's website. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) Active Region Patches (HARPs) were taken from the Stanford University's Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) data base. The source active regions of the CMEs were identified by the help of a custom filtration procedure and then by training a long short-term memory network (LSTM) to identify the patterns in the physical magnetic parameters derived from vector and line-of-sight magnetograms. The neural network simultaneously considers the time series data of these magnetic parameters at once and learns the patterns at the onset of CMEs. This neural network was then used to identify the source HARPs for the CMEs recorded from 2011 till 2020. The neural network was able to reliably identify source HARPs for 4895 CMEs out of 14604 listed in the CDAW data base during the aforementioned period.