This review focuses on the recent advances in indium tin oxide (ITO) based biosensors and sensors, which are utilized in different areas such as clinical diagnosis, food analysis and environmental monitoring. The purpose of the review is to provide useful insights in ITO thin film properties, modification methods of ITO thin film coated electrodes, biorecognition elements and immobilization procedures for fabrication of ITO based biosensors and other practical aspects. Following a brief introduction of ITO thin film production, utilization of thin films in biosensor technology and nanomaterial based ITO biosensors are described. Furthermore, the effect of different nanomaterials on the biosensing performance, and applications based on ITO electrodes are summarized by using tables and performance criteria such as detection limits-working ranges are compared. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.