Estimating remobilization of potentially toxic elements in soil and road dust of an industrialized urban environment

Botsou F., Sungur A., Kelepertzis E., Kypritidou Z., Daferera O., Massas I., ...More

ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT, vol.194, no.8, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 194 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10661-022-10200-x
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, ABI/INFORM, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Sequential extractions, Trace metals, 0, 43 M HNO3, 0, 5 M HCl, Single extractions, Mobility, SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION PROCEDURE, HEAVY-METALS, RISK-ASSESSMENT, STREET DUST, ZN, PB, CU, SPECIATION, POLLUTION, SINGLE
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


The mobility of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is of paramount concern in urban settings, particularly those affected by industrial activities. Here, contaminated soils and road dusts of the medium-size, industrialized city of Volos, Central Greece, were subjected to single-step extractions (0.43 M HNO3 and 0.5 M HCl) and the modified BCR sequential extraction procedure. This approach will allow for a better understanding of the geochemical phase partitioning of PTEs and associated risks in urban environmental matrices. Based on single extraction procedures, Pb and Zn exhibited the highest remobilization potential. Of the non-residual phases, the reducible was the most important for Pb, and the oxidizable for Cu and Zn in both media. On the other hand, mobility of Ni, Cr, and Fe was low, as inferred by their dominance into the residual fraction. Interestingly, we found a significant increase of the residual fraction in the road dust samples compared to soils. Carbonate content and organic matter controlled the extractabilities of PTEs in the soil samples. By contrast, for the road dust, magnetic susceptibility exerted the main control on the geochemical partitioning of PTEs. We suggest that anthropogenic particles emitted by heavy industries reside in the residual fraction of the SEP, raising concerns about the assessment of this fraction in terms of origin of PTEs and potential environmental risks. Conclusively, the application of sequential extraction procedures should be complemented with source identification of PTEs with the aim to better estimate the remobilization of PHEs in soil and road dust influenced by industrial emissions.