Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common neonatal endocrine disorder and 2% of cases have familial origin. Our aim in this study was to determine the genetic alterations in two siblings with CH coming from a consanguineous family. Because CH is often inherited in autosomal recessive manner in consanguineous/multi-case-families, we first performed genetic linkage studies to all known causative CH loci followed by conventional sequencing of the linked gene. The family showed potential linkage to the TSHR locus, and we detected an essential splice site mutation (c.317+1G>A) in both siblings. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the functionality of the mutation. The mutation was homozygous in the cases whereas heterozygous in carrier parents and an unaffected sibling. Here we conclude that thyroid agenesis in both siblings in this study originates from c.317+1G>A splice site mutation in the TSHR gene, and this study underlines the importance of detailed molecular genetic studies in the definitive diagnosis and classification of CH.