Few epidemiological studies investigating the association between air pollution and health are available in Turkey. The aim of this cohort-type study is to examine the relationships between ambient air quality, respiratory diseases, and decreases in pulmonary function over a year in three different towns in Canakkale: Canakkale Central town (region I), Lapseki town center (region II), and Can town (region III). Region III had four different sub-regions, which were Can town center (region III-A), and the villages located around Can town, namely Durali (region III-B), Kulfal (region III-C), and Yuvalar (region III-D). In the first stage of the study, a detailed questionnaire was completed by the participants (n = 1152) in face-to-face interviews and pulmonary function test (PFT) was performed. In the second stage of the study, PFT measurements were repeated 1 year after the first stage. Particulate matter, SO2, NO2, and ozone were gathered from air quality monitoring stations located in the centers of the three regions. The most polluted area was region III, while region I and region II were the least polluted areas. The risk of pulmonary function decline throughout a year was 2.1 times higher in region III, 2.4 times higher both in regions III-B and III-C, and 1.6 times higher for smokers in all regions. In the present study, ambient air quality was worse in region III (industrialized region), which influenced PFT scores and the prognostics for chronic respiratory diseases. The findings of this study should be considered for future investment plans in this region related to human and environmental health needs.