Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is the leading fiber crop and the second most important oil seed crop in the world. This study aimed to analyze the genetic differences among 9 cotton genotypes of cultivars from Turkey using the random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) method. A total of 42 RAPD primers were used to determine polymorphism among the genotypes and 34 of the primers produced scorable results, with 319 RAPD-PCR bands obtained. The rate of polymorphism was calculated to be 18.1%, and genetic similarity between any 2 genotypes ranged from 90.2% to 96.5%. By evaluating the presence and absence of the RAPD-PCR bands, a dendrogram indicating the relative genetic similarity of the Turkish cotton genotypes was constructed and presented. The results also showed that the genotypes can be separated from each other at the molecular level by taking advantage of some of the RAPD markers. Specific markers were proposed for the identification of genotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use RAPD markers to investigate the genetic relationships among the Gossypium genotypes grown in Turkey.