bands were obtained for all populations 78% of which were polymorphic. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) was used to investigate the genetic diversity of the populations which yielded highly significant differences among populations within regions (91.9% of the total genetic diversity). According to AMOVA and Shannon's index that were performed separately for each region, the highest value of genetic variation was observed among Northwest region populations (CV = 7.7; H-0 = 0.304) and lowest in the Southeast regions' populations (CV = 2.6; H-0 = 0.068). Nei and Li's similarity index was calculated and phylogenetic tree was established using the neighbor-joining algorithm. This phenetic analysis grouped 35 of 38 accessions in six groups leaving three highly diverse accessions outside. Wagner phylogenetic method was used to assess the phylogenetic relationships among the populations. In the majority-rule consensus tree, only 7 of the 32 forks showed above 60% occurrence. Using Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCO) of the RAPD data set, the groups were clearly separated along the first three axis. These results indicate that RAPD technique is useful for sesame systematics, and should be valuable for the maintenance of germplasm banks and the efficient choice of parents in breeding programs.