General self-efficacy and forgiveness of self, others, and situations as predictors of depression, anxiety, and stress in university students

Gençoğlu C., Şahin E., Topkaya N.

Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, vol.18, no.3, pp.605-626, 2018 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 18 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.12738/estp.2018.3.0128
  • Journal Name: Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.605-626
  • Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Self-efficacy, Forgiveness of self, Forgiveness of others, Forgiveness of situations, University students
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: No


The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between three factors—depression, anxiety, and stress— with general self-efficacy and forgiveness of the self, others, and situations. A convenience sample of 542 students (335 females, 207 males) was recruited from a university in the Central Black Sea Region of Turkey. Participants responded to the Heartland Forgiveness Scale, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-42), and a personal information form to determine their forgiveness, self-efficacy, depression, anxiety and stress levels, as well as their socio-demographics. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis and multivariate multiple regression analysis. The results of this study suggested that forgiveness of self and situations were negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. However, forgiveness of others and general self-efficacy were not significant predictors of depression, anxiety, or stress. Mental health practitioners should focus on increasing their clients’ forgiveness levels to help them cope effectively with negative affectivity symptoms including depression, anxiety, and stress in university students.