The Determinants of Carbon Footprint in Dairy Industry

Kaya B., Yüceer Y.

International Global Climate Changce Congress, Çanakkale, Turkey, 3 - 05 June 2021, pp.230

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Summary Text
  • City: Çanakkale
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.230
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Climate change is a cause of the high levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide

(CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ozone (O3), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and hydro fluorocarbons

(HCFCs) are the important GHGs. Carbon footprint is calculated as the total GHGs emitted during the human

life of activity, expressed as CO2 equivalent (CO2eq). It provides an estimate of the environment the human

damage. According to the World Health Organization, despite COVID-19 setbacks, global greenhouse gas

emissions have increased in 2020. The changing climate with increasing greenhouse gas would cause significant

losses in the economy, environment, and human life in the absence of effective prevention. For this reason, the main

sources of greenhouse gases should be determined, and measures should be taken to reduce them. Food production

accounts for 30% of the world's total GHGs emissions and has a significant impact on the environment. The

primary reason for the environmental impact of the food chain, dairy industries, and meat processing is that they

are known to be high energy consumers. However, 3-4% of the global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are

estimated to be caused by milk production. Especially, raw milk production contributes significantly to the carbon

footprint of dairy production. The determinants of the carbon footprint of dairy production are livestock and raw

milk, processing (clarification, separation, pasteurization, evaporation, filling, fermentation, cooling and chilling,

packaging, etc.), storage and transportation. However, the impact of these determinants on the carbon footprint

can vary depending on different factors, such as the production system, and geographical area. This review aims

to define the role and determinants of dairy production in the carbon footprint. There are limited number of studies

on the impact of dairy industry on carbon footprint in the literature. Further studies on the environmental impact

analysis of the production of dairy products at various scales and products are required.