Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, vol.18, pp.461-489, 2012 (SSCI)
Background. Most scholars are of the opinion that it is not enough for securing the continuity of the educational organizations that employees working in educational organizations fulfill only their duties in the job descriptions, just like other organizations (Belogolovsky & Somech, 2010; Çetin, 2011; DiPaola & Mendes da Costa Neves, 2009; Köprülü, 2011; Optakala, 2009; Yancı, 2011). In this sense, for the success of the organizations, the employees must perform some voluntary and unsalaried behaviors which are defined as “Organizational Citizenship Behavior” in the terminology and are not taken into account in formal prize system, though help efficiently fulfill the functions of the organization (Buluç, 2009; Greenberg & Baron, 2000; Oğuz, 2011; Organ, 1988; Somech & Ron, 2007; Yılmaz, 2010). Most studies on the concept of the organizational citizenship behaviour (Allison, Voss & Dryer, 2001; Durdu, 2010; Gökmen, 2011; Nar, 2009; Şanlı- Bulut, 2011; Tschannen-Moran, 2001) have revealed that the organizational citizenship behaviors aim at preventing the destructive and unfavorable behaviors hindering the maintenance of the organizations, and developing abilities and talents of the employees as well as increasing the performance of organizations by establishing an efficient collaboration. Organizational citizenship behavior in terms of increasing organization’s efficiency and performance closely related to gain competitive advantage, attain a learning identity and cope with environment by organizations, and members’ loyalty, endeavor, devotion and commitment. In addition, introduction of organizational citizenship behaviors depend on organizational health and organizational communication level is stated (Altunbaş, 2009). The degree of communication among the peoples in the organization determines the organizational communication which has direct and indirect impact on the organizational citizenship behaviors (Chen et al, 2002). The performance degree of the organizational citizenship behaviors such as sharing, interaction, cooperation, over-timing, personal development by employees are affected either positive or negative by the degree of communication in the organizations (Allison, Voss, & Dryer, 2001; Boone & Kurtz, 2003; Çelik, 2010; Çetin, 2011; Çimli-Gök, 2010; Oplatka, 2009; Somech & Drach-Zahavy, 2004; Tschannen-Moran, 2001; Vecchio, 2006). If this situation is to be taken into consideration, it would be said that organizational communication has a great influence on the organizational citizenship behaviors. Therefore, the organizational communication which has a great influence on the organizational citizenship behaviors has been chosen as subject for this study.
Purpose. The aim of this study is to determine the level of primary school teachers’ organizational citizenship behavior, and the relationship between teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviors and their organizational communication perceptions.
Method. This study is a descriptive research in relational scanning model. The sample of the study is composed of 548 teachers working in state primary schools in the central district of Manisa. “Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale” of Yücel and Samancı-Kalaycı (2009), “Organizational Communication Inventory” developed by Tuna (2008) and personal information form were used as a data collection tool. In the analysis of data, descriptive statistics, t and F test for determining the significant differences in organizational citizenship lower dimensions were used and the width of the domain for t and F tests were calculated. In addition, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient analysis for determining relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational communication were used, and were found the explain ratio of variance.
Findings and Conclusion. Results demonstrate that primary school teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviors in self-improvement, charity, scrupulousness, sportsmanship sub-dimensions is in high level and behaviors in willingness sub-dimension is in medium level. Moreover, the highest level organizational citizenship behaviors of teachers are in self-improvement subdimension and the lowest ones are in willingness sub-dimension. The reason of that can be said the relationship between job satisfaction, self-confidence, respected by the others, professional advancement in terms of career and professionally self-empowerment, and deficiencies in communication between employees, deficiencies in friendship environment based on mutual understanding, lack of common shares outside the organization, excess of financial concerns and familial responsibilities for low level voluntary behaviors. Also, there are significant differences in teachers’ organizational citizenship behavior and its sub-dimensions according to age, gender, seniority, seniority in organization and socio-economical level of the organization environment and there is not significant difference according to marital status. Thus, organizational citizenship behaviors of teachers with high seniority in profession are higher than others because there are some requests of high seniority teachers like doing something extra for organization and their friends, helping to younger colleagues, transferring their experiences and knowledge and so on that will be said. In addition, there is a positive and low level correlation between primary school teachers’ organizational citizenship behaviors (charity, willingness, sportsmanship and scrupulousness sub dimensions) and organizational communication perceptions and no relation between organizational communication and self-improvement sub-dimension. Organizational communication is affected adversely by lesser opportunities face to face communication, abundance of information obtained from unofficial channels, difficulties in the transmission problems to the managers, conflicts caused by lack of communication, stiltedness upper-lower relationships and bureaucratic obstacles. Thus, organization members’ commitment level to organization, trust level to organization and justice belief in organization are affected negatively so organizational citizenship behavior level of employee decreasing will be said. According to results; coordination, shearing and communication enhancer activities among teachers are suggested to leaders in organization for common objectives of the organizations to be adopted by teachers to increase organizational citizenship behaviors based on mutual understanding, friendship environment, cooperation, self-improvement, willingness. Reward system for supporting behaviors in willingness subdimension which determined in low level can be created. In addition, timesaving arrangements can be made and priority for in-service training can be provided for women to increasing women’s organizational citizenship behaviors. Information sharing among teachers on notice boards and bulletins can be made and requesting assistance experts and documents from public institutions and universities can be asked for increasing professional proficiency of teachers. Moreover, applications like open-door, sharing days, using technological communication tools may be performed for reducing the causes of adversely affects the organizational communication level. At last, expanding the universe and sample in organizational citizenship behavior researches, doing research about the effects of organizational citizenship behavior on other stakeholders of the organization and doing similar studies in different countries for examining the impacts of different cultural features on organizational citizenship behavior are suggested to researchers.
Bu çalışmada ilköğretim okulu öğretmenlerinin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışlarının bazı değişkenler açısından incelenerek hangilerinin anlamlı farklılıklar oluşturduğunun belirlenmesi ve öğretmenlerin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları ile örgütsel iletişim algıları arasındaki ilişkinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Tarama modelindeki çalışmanın ölçme araçları; “Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Ölçeği”, “Örgütsel İletişim Envanteri” ve kişisel bilgi formundan
oluşmaktadır. Örneklem, Manisa’daki 19 ilköğretim okulundaki 548 öğretmenden oluşmaktadır. Verilerin çözümlenmesinde t testi ve F testi yapılarak etki genişliği değerleri hesaplanmış ve korelasyon analizi uygulanmıştır. Örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı alt boyutlarında yaş, cinsiyet, meslekteki ve kurumdaki çalışma süresi ile kurumun bulunduğu sosyoekonomik çevre değişkenlerine göre anlamlı farklılıklar olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca öğretmenlerin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları ile örgütsel iletişim algıları arasında pozitif yönde ve düşük düzeyde bir ilişki olduğu belirlenmiştir. Öğretmenlerin örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışları arasında göreceli olarak düşük değerlendirilen gönüllü davranışlar olmuştur. Bu nedenle uygulayıcılara, öğretmenlerin gönüllü davranışlarını artırmaya yönelik faaliyetlere önem vermeleri ve öğretmenleri bu yönde teşvik edici bir iletişim ortamı oluşturmaya çalışmaları önerilmektedir.