Detection of relative [Na+] and [K+] levels in sweat with optical measurements

Al-Omari M., SEL K., Mueller A., Edwards J., Kaya T.

JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, vol.115, no.20, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 115 Issue: 20
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1063/1.4880295
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


We describe the use of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (HNQ, Lawsone) as a potential sweat electrolyte measurement marker. We use ultraviolet-visible absorbance measurements to determine the absorbance energy in a particular wavelength range (400 nm-500 nm). This novel approach allows us to eliminate the importance of the exact wavelength of the absorbance peak but find the integral of the range of interest. Although we numerically calculate the absorbance energy, it is imperative to use photodiodes to measure the intensity of the transmitted light that is fabricated particularly for the range of interest for future device implementations. We explored various mixing ratios of water and acetone to find the optimum solvent that would give the most sensitive and accurate relative electrolyte sensing. The pH value was also modified to see the effect on the absorbance energy and intensity. A representative group of subjects were used to collect sweat from the dehydration and hyperhydration cases. The results are convincing that HNQ solutions can be used as a wearable, continuous sweat sensor. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.