JOURNAL OF PLANT NUTRITION, vol.36, no.5, pp.731-748, 2013 (SCI-Expanded)
In 2009 a greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the effects of boron (B) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on wheat (Triticum aestivum spp. vulgare cv Bezostiya') and barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Tokak') on plant growth, freezing injury, and antioxidant enzyme capacity. Results showed that boron (0, 1, 3, 6, 9kg B ha1) and PGPR application (Bacillus megaterium M3, Bacillus subtilis OSU142, Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 and Raoultella terrigena) at which 50% of leaves were injured (LT50) values and ice nucleation activities in both plants were found statistically significant. Boron application with all PGPR strains decreased LT50 values in wheat and barley plants under noncold stress (NCS) and cold stress conditions (CS). There were statistically significant differences between bacterial inoculation and B fertilizer in terms of root and shoot dry weight under NCS and CS conditions. Reactive oxidative oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, POD, CAT) were negatively affected CS conditions and decreased with reduced temperatures of media, but B and PGPR applications alleviated the low-temperature deleterious effects in both plants species tested. The lowest ROS and antioxidant enzyme (SOD, POD, CAT) of wheat and barley were observed with 6kg B ha1 with R. terrigena.