Camels are first known to have been in Turkey some 2600 years ago when they were used as animals of war. There has been continued presence ever since and the country is unusual as it is home to both one-humped and bactrian types. During the nineteenth and as late as the early twentieth century there was an important exchange of breeding animals between Turkey and Syria. Numbers declined rapidly after the 1930s and at the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century the country's camel population was little more than 1000 animals. These are now mainly used for sport and as a tourist attraction with meat being a minor product. Camels are not included in Turkey's programme of conservation of its domestic livestock resources but as an ancient and important part of biodiversity and because of the location of both types at the extremes of their normal ranges they are worthy of further attention.