An immunosensor with rapid and ultrasensitive response for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been built up with 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP) onto the gold surfaces. Quantitative analysis of VEGF was performed by recording the impedance changing of the gold electrode surface by binding of VEGF. The human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGF-R1, Flt-1) was used as a biorecognition element for the first time in the literature. VEGF-R1 was covalently immobilized via 4-ATP self-assembled monolayer formed on gold thin film covered surface. Construction of the biosensor was carefully characterised by the techniques such as electrochemistry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In order to characterize impedance data, Kramers-Kronig transform was performed on the experimental impedance data. The limit of detection of the immunosensor for qualitative detection was 100 pg/mL while the LOD for quantitative detection could down to 100 pg/mL by using the VEGF-R1 based biosensor. Finally, artificial serum samples spiked with VEGF was analyzed by the proposed immunosensor to investigate useful of the biosensor for early biomarker diagnosis.