This study investigated the effects of open- and self-pollination treatments on genetic estimations and kernel biochemical content in a maize diallel experiment. A 7x7 complete reciprocal diallel set (7 parents and 42 hybrids) was used as plant material. Measured traits were: kernel weight per plant, protein content, oil content and carbohydrate content. General combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA), maternal effects (MAT), non-maternal effects (NMAT) and heterosis values were compared in open- and self-pollination treatments for measured traits. Results showed that the pollination treatments had a significant effect on all investigated traits. Parental lines and hybrid combinations gave different responses. Parents had relatively higher protein and oil content in self-pollination but hybrids had lower values in self-pollination compared with open-pollination. A considerable number of genotypes showed significant differences for genetic estimations (GCA, SCA, MAT, NMAT) and heterosis between open- and self-pollination treatments. Overall, findings suggest that evaluation of kernel quality traits should be made on selfed ear samples; however, evaluation for yield should be carried out on open-pollinated samples.