This study examined the relations between core psychological self-schemas and the subjective well-being (SWB) of Turkish and California (United States) adolescents. The participants were 2,242 high school students (1,123 from Turkey and 1,119 from California). Core psychological self-schemas were measured with the Social and Emotional Health Survey-Secondary (SEHS-S) and SWB was measured by the combination of the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; cognitive component) and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C; affective component). Significant, small effect size differences were found for self-awareness, persistence, family coherence, and behavioral self-control, favoring the Turkish adolescents, and for school support, empathy, and SWB, favoring the California adolescents. Positive associations were found between the social and emotional health self-schemas and SWB for adolescents in both cultures. Multiple regression analyses indicated that self-efficacy, self-awareness, family coherence, and zest were significant predictors of SWB for both the Turkish and California samples. For the California sample only, peer support, gratitude, and optimism were significant predictors. The findings are discussed in the context of individualist and collectivist cultures.