Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the principal pungent component in hot peppers. The role of capsaicin in carcinogenesis is quite controversial. Although some investigators suspect that capsaicin is a carcinogen, co-carcinogen, or tumor promoter, others have reported that it has chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic effects. The present study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and chemosensitizing activities of capsaicin alone and on 5-flourouracil (5-FU)-treated gastric cancer cells. In this study, the gastric cancer cell line HGC-27 was used and capsaicin used as a chemosensitizer and 5-flourouracil (5-FU) was used as chemotherapeutic. Cytotoxicity and chemosensitizing activities were analyzed with MTT assay; supernatant levels of LDH and glucose were detected as biochemical markers of cell viability; cytochrome c and AIF were evaluated with western blot; and additionally, wound-healing assays were employed. Results suggested that capsaicin had significant anticancer abilities; such capsaicin were capable of causing multifold decreases in the half maximal inhibitory concentration IC50 value of 5-FU. The continuing controversy surrounding consumption or topical application of capsaicin clearly suggests that more well-controlled epidemiologic studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of capsaicin use. In summary, the present study demonstrated that capsaicin has the potential to be used for treating gastric carcinoma with 5-FU in vitro.