This comprehensive study aims to examine the relationships between ambient air quality (AAQ) and respiratory health of the participants residing in three different towns of Canakkale city, Turkey between August 2013 and 2014. AAQ measurements for bioaerosols, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), total particulate matter (PM) count, carbon dioxide (CO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) were performed and monthly pulmonary function test (PFT) was applied to volunteer participants residing in the study sites (n = 121) for one year. Additionally, concentrations of air pollutants for PM2.5/PM10, sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides, and ozone were gathered from AAQ monitoring stations. To estimate the contributions of the emission sources and their effects on human health in the region, an emission inventory was also prepared in the region and AERMOD modelling system was applied for the year of 2013. Accordingly, the industry was the most polluting sector for NOx and SO2, while road traffic and residential heating were the most polluting sectors for CO and PM10. Factor analysis revealed that organics, combustion, bioaerosol propagation, and ozone accumulation contributed to AAQ, in agreement with AQ modelling results. Can had the worst air quality (industrialized site), which affected the respiratory health indicators of the participants. Generalized linear model estimated that PF of the participants varied according to the residing district, gender, suffering from asthma, and lifelong smoking or environmental tobacco smoke exposure (p < 0.05). Also, PF of the participants were linked with VOCs levels in the Central town, total PM count in Lapseki, and ozone levels in Can (p < 0.05).