Psychological Determinants of Turkish Farmers’ Health and Safety Behaviors: An Application of the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior

Baydur H., Eser E., Sen Gundogan N. E., Ayhan E., Eser S., Dede B., ...More

Agriculture (Switzerland), vol.13, no.5, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/agriculture13050967
  • Journal Name: Agriculture (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: theory of planned behavior, psychometrics, occupational health, farmers
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Structural and behavioral factors are among the causes of occupational accidents in agriculture. The SACURIMA Cost network developed a questionnaire to measure the determinants of farmers’ safety behavior based on the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB). Extended TPB adds subjective norms, subjective control, physical barriers and safety culture to TPB. Objective: The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties of the “Farmers Safety Behaviors questionnaire” developed by the SACURIMA Cost network. Methods: A Turkish version of the questionnaire was applied to 305 farmers producing six different agricultural products in Turkey. The tool consists of 64 items measuring the determinants of four risk-related behaviors (fall prevention, machine handling, chemical-pesticide use, and animal handling) in a single extended TPB model. Results: The alpha values for the six dimensions ranged from 0.69 to 0.89. The confirmatory factor analysis results for all dimensions were at acceptable levels (CFI range = 0.93–0.99; RMSEA range = 0.03–0.09). Four path models were used to test the behaviors and their predictors, and the results were found to be predictive. The criterion and known groups’ validity analyses results were sufficient. Conclusion: The “Farmers Safety Behaviors Questionnaire” is a valid and reliable tool to measure the determinants of occupational safety behaviors in Turkish farmers.