Real-world effectiveness of long-acting injectable vs. oral antipsychotics in patients with bipolar I disorder: a 1-year retrospective observational study

KORKMAZ Ş. A., Gürler S.

Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol.40, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 40
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/03007995.2024.2337685
  • Journal Name: Current Medical Research and Opinion
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Public Affairs Index
  • Keywords: Alcohol withdrawal delirium, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens, benzodiazepine, diazepam, high dose, treatment
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Objective: Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are recommended in the treatment non-adherence. Despite the widespread use of LAI antipsychotics, there is limited data on clinical outcomes in bipolar I disorder (BD-I) patients with real-world data. We aimed to compare BD-I patients treated with LAI and oral antipsychotics (OAP) in terms of treatment effectiveness in a 1-year follow-up period. Methods: The study was conducted retrospectively with electronic health records of 116 BDI patients. The primary outcomes were whether patients in the LAI group and the OAP group differed in relapse, rehospitalization, emergency room (ER) visits, and all-cause treatment discontinuation at 1-year follow-up after a mania episode. Cox regression modeling was used to predict the recurrence of any mood episode and all-cause treatment discontinuation during follow-up. The secondary outcomes evaluated were the effects of sociodemographic and clinical parameters and concomitant psychotropic medications on the course of the illness and treatment adherence. Results: Of all 116 patients, 33 (28.4%) were under LAI, and 83 (71.6%) were under OAP treatment. LAI users had a history of more hospitalizations and total mood episodes. Patients in the LAI group had more treatment non-adherence before the index hospitalization. At 1-year follow-up, there was no difference between the groups in terms of any mood relapse, rehospitalization, ER visits, and all-cause treatment discontinuation. As a secondary outcome, lithium users were found to have fewer new episodes and discontinuations of treatments. Conclusions: In real-world data, there is no evidence that LAI antipsychotics (compared to OAP) are superior in the maintenance treatment of BD. These results are important in terms of reflecting clinical practices for the treatment of BD-I. These results do not devalue the use of LAI therapy in BD; however, more studies are needed to identify positive predictors for LAI treatments in BD.