Evaluation of Operator and Patient Doses after Irradiation with Handheld X-ray Devices

Altındağ A., EREN H., ORHAN K., Görgün S.

Applied Sciences (Switzerland), vol.13, no.18, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 18
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/app131810414
  • Journal Name: Applied Sciences (Switzerland)
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: dental, handheld, radiation dose, radiation protection, X-ray
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


This study aimed to evaluate radiation doses from handheld X-ray devices, specifically NOMAD Pro 2TM (DvcN), Rextar X (DvcRX), and Diox 602 (DvcD), targeting operator and patient’s critical organs and tissues. Calibrated TLD-100H dosimeters were placed on a mannequin and phantom head, focusing on the eyes, thyroid, gonads, hands, and salivary glands. Using a TLD reader, absorbed equivalent doses post irradiation were assessed. Conventional systems yielded higher radiation doses than phosphor plates and digital systems. Notably, implementing protective measures resulted in significant (p < 0.05) dose reductions to the operator. Peak measurements without protection included: gonad 24.4 (DvcN) μGy; thyroid 30.5 (DvcN) μGy; right eye 31.9 (DvcN) μGy; left eye 27.9 (DvcN) μGy; right hand 111.6 (DvcRX) μGy; and left hand 71.7 (DvcD) μGy. Radiation dose reductions ranged from 11.49% to 93.25%, depending on the region and device. It is imperative to adhere to radiological protection protocols, particularly when employing handheld X-ray devices; optimally, these should be used with digital systems.