Evaluation of Smooth Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Isoform Expressions in a Buried Penis


Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2024.03.036
  • Journal Name: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, CAB Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Buried penis, Dartos facia, SM1, SM2, Smooth muscle myosin heavy chain
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Background: A buried penis (BP) is rare in which the penile body is retracted into the prepubic adipose tissue. This research focuses on differences in smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) isoform expressions in the dartos fascia. Methods: A total of 82 children, 41 of whom had BPs, who applied for circumcision between May and November 2021, were included in the study. The cases were divided into four groups aged ≥6 years (NP6, n = 18) and aged ≤3 years (NP3, n = 17) with normal penile appearance, aged ≥6 years (BP6, n = 23) and aged ≤3 years (BP,n = 24) with a BP. SMMHC isoforms mRNA gene expression analyses were performed by quantitative PCR technique in dartos fascia obtained from foreskin removed by circumcision. Results: Compared to the NP3 group, the SM1 mRNA expressed in the BP6 group was statistically significantly higher (p < 0.005). SM2 mRNA levels expressed in dartos fascia were considerably higher in NP6 and NP3 groups compared to BP6 and BP3 groups (p < 0.001). The SM2/SM1 ratio was 0.85 in the BP6 group and 1.46 in the NP6 group, which was statistically significant (p = 0.006) and increased from 0.87 in the BP3 group to 2.21 in the NP3 group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In a buried penis, there is a difference in the expression of SMMHC isoforms. SM1 is highly expressed, while SM2 decreases, increasing the SM2/SM1 ratio. This causes increased contractility in the smooth muscle, leading to retraction of the penile body. The dartos fascia surrounding it resembles aberrant muscle tissue in boys with a BP. Level of Evidence: Level III. Type of Study: Case-control study.