Thiourea-Isocyanate-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks with Tunable Surface Charge and Surface Area for Methylene Blue and Methyl Orange Removal from Aqueous Media


Micromachines, vol.13, no.6, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/mi13060938
  • Journal Name: Micromachines
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: absorbent, covalent organic framework, dye removal, porous coordination polymers, thiourea-isocyanate
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


A thiourea hexamethylene diisocyanate covalent organic framework (TH COF) was synthesized by adjusting the surface charge and surface area. The surface charge value of TH COF, −3.8 ± 0.5 mV, can be changed to −29.1 ± 0.4 mV by treatment with NaOH (dp-TH) and 17.1 ± 1.0 mV by treatment with HCl (p-TH). Additionally, the surface area of TH COF was 39.3 m2/g, whereas the surface area of dp-TH COF and p-TH COF structures were measured as 41.4 m2/g and 42.5 m2/g, respectively. However, the COF structure had a better adsorption capability with acid and base treatments, e.g., dp-TH COF absorbed 5.5 ± 0.3 mg/g methylene blue (MB) dye, and p-TH COF absorbed 25.9 ± 1.4 mg/g methyl orange (MO) dye from 100 mL 25 ppm aqueous dye solutions, thereby increasing the MB and MO absorption amounts of the TH COF structure. Furthermore, by cal-culating the distribution, selectivity, and relative selectivity coefficients, the absorption capacity order was determined as dp-TH > TH > p-TH COFs for the MB dye, whereas it was p-TH > TH > dp-TH COFs for the MO dye. Finally, the reusability of dp-TH COF for MB absorption and p-TH COF for MO absorption were investigated. After five repeated uses, dp-TH COF retained 64.6 ± 3.7% of its absorption ability, whereas p-TH COF preserved 79.7 ± 3.2% of its absorption ability relative to the initial absorption amount.