Damage tolerance of basalt fiber reinforced multiscale composites: Effect of nanoparticle morphology and hygrothermal aging

Sukur E. F., Elimsa S., ESKİZEYBEK V., Avci A.

Composites Part B: Engineering, vol.273, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 273
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2024.111234
  • Journal Name: Composites Part B: Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Basalt fiber, Damage tolerance, Epoxy, Halloysite, Hygrothermal aging, Nanoclay, Silica
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Barely visible impact damages of fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) have been the subject of much systematic investigation, specifically with the combination of the service conditions. Introducing nanoparticles into the polymer matrix is an effective strategy to improve the impact resistance and aging performance of FRPs. However, the effect of nanoparticle morphology on the mechanical performance and damage tolerance of hygrothermally aged FRPs has yet to be extensively investigated. Here, we report the effect of silica (SiO2, 0D), halloysite (HNT, 1D), and montmorillonite clay (NC, 2D) nanoparticles on the damage tolerance of basalt fiber-reinforced epoxy composites, considering their environmentally harsh service conditions. The ceramic nanoparticle-modified epoxy represented the highest mechanical performance in the case of 2 wt% nanoparticle addition for all nanoparticle types. The efficiency of ceramic nanoparticles altered with the loading type in the epoxy nanocomposites. SiO2 nanoparticle-modified epoxy demonstrated the highest tensile strength (44 % increase), while HNT nanoparticle-modified epoxy demonstrated the highest flexural strength (30 % increase). The hygrothermal aging resulted in a slight increase in the impact performance of multi-scale FRPs. In contrast, the HNT nanoparticle-modified multi-scale FRPs exhibited the highest impact resistance with an increase of 8 % in impact load. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed the multi-scale composite's crosslinking density increased drastically (47 %) with hygrothermal aging, which increased the storage modulus (14 %) and glass transition temperature (15.7 %) due to physical aging effects as revealed by FTIR analysis. Compression after impact tests showed that the compression strength of HNT-modified multi-scale composites increased 17.8 % after the aging. This study provides valuable insights into developing and performing multiscale composites for demanding aviation and wind energy applications.