Synthesis of Silica-Based Boron-Incorporated Collagen/Human Hair Keratin Hybrid Cryogels with the Potential Bone Formation Capability

Cal F., Sezgin Arslan T., Derkus B., Kıran F., Cengiz U., Arslan Y. E.

ACS APPLIED BIO MATERIALS, vol.4, no.9, pp.7266-7279, 2021 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 4 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acsabm.1c00805
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, BIOSIS, Compendex
  • Page Numbers: pp.7266-7279
  • Keywords: cryogel, sol-gel, collagen, hair keratin, boron, inorganic-organic hybrid, bone tissue engineering, BOROSILICATE GLASSES, CELL-PROLIFERATION, BIOACTIVE GLASSES, FEATHER KERATIN, IN-VITRO, TISSUE, SCAFFOLDS, HYDROGELS, DIFFERENTIATION, CHITOSAN
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have evolved into a different concept, the so-called clinical tissue engineering. Within this context, the synthesis of next-generation inorganic-organic hybrid constructs without the use of chemical crosslinkers emerges with a great potential for treating bone defects. Here, we propose a sophisticated approach for synthesizing cost-effective boron (B)- and silicon (Si)-incorporated collagen/hair keratin (B-Si-Col-HK) cryogels with the help of sol-gel reactions. In this approach, collagen and hair keratin were engaged with a B-Si network using tetraethyl orthosilicate as a silica precursor, and the obtained cryogels were characterized in depth with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid-state NMR, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, porosity and swelling tests, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda analyses, frequency sweep and temperature-dependent rheology, contact angle analysis, micromechanical tests, and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In addition, the cell survival and osteogenic features of the cryogels were evaluated by the MTS test, live/dead assay, immuno/histochemistry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. We conclude that the B-Si-networked Col-HK cryogels having good mechanical durability and osteoinductive features would have the potential bone formation capability.