Synaptosomes are used as an ex vivo model in the investigation of neuronal transmission and neurodegenerative processes. In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of boric acid (BA) and curcumin, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, on A beta 1-42 induced neurodegenerative damage. Synaptosomes obtained from the rat cerebral cortex were divided into five groups: control, 10 mu M A beta 1-42, 10 mu M A beta 1-42 + 25 mM BA, 10 mu M A beta 1-42 + 10 mu M curcumin, and 10 mu M A beta 1-42 + 25 mM BA+10 mu M curcumin. Synaptosomes treated with A beta 1-42 caused a significant decline in synaptophysin levels and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, DNA fragmentation values, and nitric oxide (NO) levels compared with the control group (P < 0.01). Synaptosomes treated with BA showed a significant reduction in MDA and NO levels against A beta 1-42 exposure (P < 0.01). In addition, curcumin treatment has been found to cause a significant reduction in AChE activities and MDA levels in synaptosomes (P < 0.05). Co-administration of BA and curcumin on synaptosomes exposed to A beta 1-42 resulted in a significant decrease in DNA fragmentation values, MDA levels, and AChE activities. Curcumin and BA + curcumin combination showed an enhancement in synaptophysin levels of A beta 1-42-induced synaptosomes (P < 0.01). The results showed that BA and curcumin had protective effects on rat brain synaptosomes against A beta 1-42 exposure. BA and curcumin treatment can have abilities to prevent the alterations of the cholinergic system and inhibit oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex synapses of A beta 1-42 exposed.