Although marine research on anthozoans began at the end of the 1800s with some reports on the occurrence in Turkey, comprehensive knowledge about their biotic features remains limited. This study is the first detailed diversity assessment of scleractinian corals inhabiting the Turkish waters. The surveys conducted on rocky habitats between 2011 and 2014 around the Dardanelles and Marmara Sea provided the distributional data of nine corals, five of which (Caryophyllia inornata, Paracyathus pulchellus, Polycyathus muellerae, Phyllangia mouchezii, Leptopsammia pruvoti) were recorded for the first time from the above mentioned regions. During the surveys carried out at 200 stations down to 50 m depth, a total of 1072 scuba dives were made and the ecological features of habitats, physical characteristics of coral species and an updated list of corals as a contribution to the scleractinian fauna of Turkey were provided. The abundance rate of Polycyathus muellerae and Cladocora caespitosa in Eceabat and Dardanos regions was higher than at the other stations.