Here, a facile method for the preparation of polymeric particles from a sugar molecule, maltitol (ML) in single step was reported via microemulsion polymerization/crosslinking technique with a high yield, 89 +/- 6%. Furthermore, poly(Maltitol) (p(ML)) particles were chemically modified to induce different physicochemical characteristic using different anionic and cationic modifying agents such as taurine (TA) and diethylenetriamine (DETA) to prepare m-p(ML)/TA and m-p(ML)/DETA. The blood compatibility of the p(ML) particles and their modified forms were tested with fresh blood, and found that p(ML) and m-(ML)/DETA particles are blood compatible with about 5% hemolysis, and above 80% blood clotting indices. Moreover, the cytotoxicity results against L929 fibroblast cell line revealed that p(ML) based particle are biocompatible up to 100 mu g/mL with 85% cell viability regardless of their nature, and at 200 mu g/mL dosage of p(ML), m-p(ML)/TA and m-p(ML)/DETA particles, the cell viabilities were determined as 83.33, 64.03 and 73.89% on for L929 fibroblast cells implying the slightly less biocompatibility nature of m-p(ML)/TA in accord with the blood compatibility results. Additionally, the apoptotic and necrotic indices were determination for p(ML) based particles on L929 fibroblast cells, and the results revealed that these particles do not induce any and stress on the cells. Also, it does not have genotoxic effect as determined against CHO cells.