The essential oils of three species of Phlomis from Turkey, Phlomis leueophracta, Phlomis chimerae and Phlomis grandiflora var. grandiflora have been studied. The main constituents of P. leucophracta essential oil were beta-caryophyllene (20.2%), alpha-pinene (19.2%) and limonene (11.0%). This species also contained three diterpene derivatives, 15-isopimaradiene, manoyl oxide and epi-13-manoyl oxide that summed 1.4%. In P. chimerae the principal compounds were beta-caryophyllene (31.6%), alpha-pinene (11.0%), germacrene D (6.1%), limonene (5.5%) and linalool (4.7%). In P. grand flora var. grand flora, germacrene D (45.4%), beta-caryophyllene (22.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (4.9%) were among the principal derivatives. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.