B, P, and S heteroatom doped, bio- and hemo-compatible 2D graphitic-carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with antioxidant, light-induced antibacterial, and bioimaging endeavors

Demirci S., Suner S. S., Neli O. U., KOCA A., ŞAHİNER N.

Nanotechnology, vol.35, no.2, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1088/1361-6528/ad0125
  • Journal Name: Nanotechnology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: B-, biocompatible/bloodcompatible and antibacterial 2D particles, P-, photo-active graphitic nitride, S-doped 2D g-C3N4
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


The synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) graphiticg-C3N4and heteroatom-doped graphitic H@g-C3N4(H: B, P, or S) particles were successfully done using melamine as source compounds and boric acid, phosphorous red, and sulfur as doping agents. The band gap values of 2Dg-C3N4, B50@g-C3N4, P50@g-C3N4, and S50@g-C3N4structures were determined as 2.90, 3.03, 2.89, and 2.93 eV, respectively. The fluorescent emission wavelengths of 2Dg-C3N4, B50@g-C3N4, P50@g-C3N4, and S50@g-C3N4structures were observed at 442, 430, 441, and 442 nm, respectively upon excitation atλEx= 325 nm. There is also one additional new emission wavelength was found at 345 nm for B50@g-C3N4structure. The blood compatibility test results ofg-C3N4, B50@g-C3N4, P50@g-C3N4, and S50@g-C3N4structures revealed that all materials are blood compatible with <2% hemolysis and >90% blood clotting indices at 100μg ml-1concentration. The cell toxicity of the prepared 2D graphitic structures were also tested on L929 fibroblast cells, and even the heteroatom doped hasg-C3N4structures induce no cytotoxicity was observed with >91% cell viability even at 250μg ml-1particle concentration with the exception of P50@g-C3N4which as >75 viability. Moreover, for 2Dg-C3N4, B50@g-C3N4, and S50@g-C3N4constructs, even at 500μg ml-1concentration, >90% cell viabilities was monitored. As a diagnostic material, B50@g-C3N4was found to have significantly high penetration and distribution abilities into L929 fibroblast cells granting a great potential in fluorescence imaging and bioimaging applications. Furthermore, the elemental doping with B, P, and S ofg-C3N4were found to significantly increase the photodynamic antibacterial activity e.g. more than half of bacterial elimination by heteroatom-doped forms ofg-C3N4under UVA treatment was achieved.