Reliability of GPS/GNSS-based positioning in a forestry environment


JOURNAL OF FORESTRY RESEARCH, vol.28, no.3, pp.605-614, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11676-016-0332-0
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.605-614
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


The critical environment is one of the main insufficient to positioning. Geodetic observing systems such as the global positioning system (GPS) and the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) are routinely used to estimate the contaminating effects by critical environment. In an effort to define the accuracy and reliability of GPS/GNSS positioning, we investigated the data having contaminating effects due to forestry environment. Some reliability criteria and geometric concepts were defined and then examined by them. Two sets of data were collected in open sky and closed canopy separately. The analysis of the observed data was performed using the reliability criteria and geometric concepts. The accuracy and reliability of positioning strongly depended on the canopy ratio and satellite availability. The minimum detectable error on baseline was estimated about 2.5 mm under closed canopy. The number of observable satellites and minimal detectable errors were computed for each epoch. The minimal biases on estimated baselines, bias-to-noise ratios for estimating baseline components and probability of success of the integer ambiguity solution were defined in case of forest canopy. Finally, geometric quality could be achieved using the factors of dilution of precision. Thus, the presented accuracy and reliability concepts fulfill the requirement proposed by the global geodetic observing system in forest environment.