Quaternary ammonium salt hydrogels from a cationic monomer, (3-acrylamidopropyl)-trimethylammonium chloride (APTMACl), in a variety sizes such as bulk, micro- and nano- has been prepared. The synthesis of micro- and nanogels were carried out in the microenvironment of water-in-oil microemulsions using two types of surfactants, namely, L-alpha- phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT). Additionally, hydrogel-hydrogel composite semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (semi-IPN) was synthesized by dispersing previously prepared micro/nanogel into neutral monomers such as acrylamide (AAm) or 2-hydroxylethyl methcarylate (HEMA) before network formation. Hydrogel swelling and pH response behaviors have been investigated for bulk gels. Morphology, structure, and size of nano-, micro- and bulk materials were explored utilizing transmission electron microcopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was confirmed with gel electrophoresis that completely charged nanogel form a strong complex with DNA.