SMALL RUMINANT RESEARCH, vol.101, pp.73-83, 2011 (SCI-Expanded)
In Turkey and the near countries in Middle East and Balkans many cheeses and fermented milk products are manufactured with milk from small ruminants. Some of these products are called with different names and have modified manufacturing procedures, but all of them are important for the consumers due to the type of milk used. Products made with goat's or sheep's milk have some different and interesting characteristics especially, taste, aroma, appearance and chemical constituents, compared to the counterparts made with cow's milk. In Turkey, although some cheeses and fermented milk products were originally produced using milk only from small ruminants, nowadays cow's milk is mixed with this milk due to the limited production of the first. The significant decrease in the production of goats or sheep is probably due to migration of population from rural area to urban, non-cooperating in farms, low yields in production and milking, unproductive pastures, increasing prices in feeds and labor and some problems for agricultural policies and managements. However, the consumers' demands for dairy products of high nutritional and health value, has increased the popularity of dairy products from small ruminants. This paper discusses the characteristics and technology procedures of some dairy products made using small ruminants' milk including different types of cheese and yogurt, butter, ice cream, ayran, kefir and drinking milk. Also, a short statistical data on goat and sheep production and the utilization status of their milk products are discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.