In this study, the effects of the various land cultivation systems on production costs, efficiency and resource usage have been compared for "conventional" and "protective" wheat production. The study has been conducted in the Turkish region Tekirdag with intensive agricultural practices encompassing 80 enterprises having 120 ha or more of wheat. Over 30 of the enterprises practiced protective agricultural methods and used direct planting machines. The other 50 enterprises performed their wheat production activities by conventional systems. The production costs has been estimated to 0.26 US $/kg for the enterprises using direct plantation machines and to 0.31 US $/kg for the enterprises using conventional systems. The proportion for the production costs of the soil preparation and plantation costs arc higher than that of the enterprises making production by conventional systems. Besides, the effects of rational usage of the resources for wheat production on its cost and efficiency have been analysed. A positive (0.236) correlation between the efficient resource usage and efficiency of the enterprises making production by soil protection system and conventional system has been determined. Additionally, a negative (-0.579) correlation between efficiency and cost of these enterprises has been found.