Silica gel 60 removes bitterness from cold-press produced grapefruit seed oil by adsorption principle

Yılmaz E., Deviren A.

Flavour And Fragrance Journal, vol.37, no.1, pp.52-62, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 37 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Journal Name: Flavour And Fragrance Journal
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.52-62
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of this study was to remove bitterness from cold-press

produced grapefruit

seed oil by adsorption principle. The 14 different materials and 5 different metal–organic

frameworks (MOFs) were tested for this purpose. Best performing adsorbents

were selected based on the analyses of sensory bitterness measurements, as well as

oil loss, free fatty acidity (FFA), peroxide value (PV), and color measurements. The

silica gel 60 and MIL-101

MOF were selected as the best performing adsorbents and

tested against control oil. There were some changes in oil color. Oil FFA and unsaponifiable

matter values were decreased, and PV and turbidities were enhanced after the

treatments. Similarly, unsaturated fatty acid content and tocopherols were decreased

expectedly. Although MIL-101

caused great sterol losses, it was in fewer quantities

with silica gel 60 treatment. Silica gel 60 treatment resulted in the complete removal

of the bitter-tasting

flavonoids: naringin and neohesperidin. The non-bitter


were also decreased after both treatments. Most importantly, sensory descriptive

analysis proved that after silica gel 60 treatment, the bitter taste was totally removed,

and the astringent, menthol, and raw vegetable attributes significantly reduced compared

with the control sample. Overall, the silica gel 60 treatment provided total success

in removing bitterness from the oil. Further studies for the reusability of the silica

gel 60 and possibly other similar adsorbents for the same purpose were suggested.