In many countries throughout the world, women are less likely than men to choose a career that involves science, mathematics or engineering, and are more likely than men to earn bachelor's degrees in non-science and non-engineering fields. Similarly, women are less likely to hold managerial positions within the industry they work. Gender disparity in education and professional careers is well-researched in Western culture, including North America and Western European countries. However, not much is known about factors related with gender affecting women's education or career choices in Eastern culture. The purpose of this chapter is to present a review and synthesis of the literature on women's education and career development in Turkey, a unique country known for its Islamic, secular and democratic identity in the Middle East. More focus is placed on investigating Turkish women's tendency to pursue science, mathematics or engineering careers, as revealed by research. Statistical information is given on the proportion of women tracking or holding traditionally "masculine" professional positions. Within discussions, comparisons are made to highlight similarities and differences of the factors affecting women's career choices in Turkish and Western contexts.