Modern exploration programs, mainly by multinational exploration and mining companies, in the last two decades have revealed the mineral potential of the ancient land of Turkey. The country became a gold producer in 2001, previously the only gold produced in Turkey was a by-product from base-metal mines. Currently the country has two active gold mines, Ovacik and Kisladag and more metal mines in development, such as Copier, Efemcukuru, Mastra, Cerattepe, Caldag and Madenkoy. In terms of industrial minerals Kazan and Beypazari mines will begin production of trona soon. Buoyant metal prices, amendment of the mining law in 2004 as well as economic stability have attracted more major and junior exploration and mining companies into Turkey. The main exploration and development focus has been precious- and base-metals, especially gold and copper, though industrial minerals attracted some mining giants. Porphyry copper-gold, epithermal gold and volcanic-associated massive sulphide deposits are the main exploration interests while carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits, especially non-sulphide zinc, are other targets. Recent advancements in mining technology have attracted companies' attention to low-grade lateritic nickel deposits of the country.