Preparation and Characterization of 3D Printed Objects Based on Different Kefir Gels

Ok S., Yılmaz E., Demirel Zorba N. N.

FOOD BIOPHYSICS, vol.1, no.1, pp.1-18, 2024 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 1 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11483-024-09839-5
  • Journal Name: FOOD BIOPHYSICS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Hospitality & Tourism Complete, Hospitality & Tourism Index, INSPEC, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-18
  • Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, kefir-containing healthy snacks were produced by using 3D food printing technique. Although kefir has many

important health benefits, its consumption is quite low. It was thought that kefir-containing snacks in attractive shapes

produced with a 3D food printer could increase the kefir consumption. For this purpose, disintegrated kefir gels prepared

with starch, gelatin and alginate were used as inks. First, the minimum gelation concentration (C*) of each gelator was

determined. Then, disintegrated gels with concentrations of C*, C*+1%, and C*+2% were prepared with each gelator

and the effect of gelator concentration on printing quality was investigated for each gelator. Printing quality was associ-

ated with storage modulus, loss factor and flow behavior, and the minimum gelator concentration required for a suitable

formulation for 3D printing (highest printability and dimensional stability) was determined as 5%, 6% and 3% for starch,

gelatin and alginate, respectively. Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. contents of the starch-based sample were found

to be significantly lower than those of fresh kefir and gelatin and alginate-based samples. Sensory properties and con-

sumer appreciation were lower for the gelatin-based sample. Due to the high printing quality (98% printability and 99%

dimensional stability), high probiotic content (7.81 and 8.13 log cfu/ml Lactobacillus spp. and Lactococcus spp. content,

respectively) and high consumer appreciation (4.71 out of 5 for general acceptance), alginate-based sample (containing 3%

alginate) was chosen as the best sample. In conclusion, new, chewable, alive, alternative kefir products were successfully

developed for consumers seeking new ways of kefir consumption.